Note: click on headings to read more.

The known Viking Age only includes the expeditions to the northern European countries 793 to 1066 C.E. and the Anglo Saxon from Fifth to Eleventh Century C.E. This research project shows that there probably was an earlier Saxon Celtic Viking Age in the central and southern countries, mainly based on cave petroglyphs and paintings of two horned figures

and stripe square sail ships, Itefseneb or Neb-Senu statue 1800 B.C.E. of a Saxon Celtic official who worked in Egypt, and Egyptian and Babylonian murals, other artifacts in Central Americas, and stone thatch settlements and colonies. Based on Norse Viking mythology, their water expeditions can be divided between: the Ice, the northern colder countries, and the Fire, the warmer central and southern countries. For the purpose of this project, the definition of Viking will simply mean a two horn helmet navigator traveling on a stripe sail ship for the purpose of trading, probably from Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.

Research on possible signs of Viking Celtic Breton influences in certain parts of the Philippines, using internet tools of Google search, cultural matching of similarities, association by meaning, others photos and opinions, and psychic intuition, has lead to the development of this guide to help tourists who visit these sites. Aside from the Philippines, other countries in the Americas such as Mexico, Asia in South Korea, Africa in Egypt, Middle East in Iraq, and South Africa also have signs of trading, even colonies! From this research, hopefully the overview of all these combined photos and videos of sites and things matching known Saxon Viking, Celtic and Breton cultures and countries, and others eyewitness opinions, will then make their unknown explorations of the southern side of the world in Egypt, South Africa, Mexico, Philippines and South Korea, known after the cultural experts, historians and archaelogists investigate their authenticity.

Speculation theories are only a way to explain material evidence and written material but the evidence can be checked be carbon, radiocarbon, uranium dating for chronological dating to know whether a site or object really existed far back in time that it is not a modern hoax. Some history unfortunately has been destroyed by wars and prejudice, from as far back as the eight century Saxon Wars with Saxon King Widukind versus Frank King Charlemagne, to ancient and modern twentieth century wars such as the Korean War and all its Asian invasions, World War II with the bombing of the Philippines and Japan, Scythian Empire to Afghanistan War and Babylonian Empire to Iraq War with the destruction of their library, making it difficult to connect and put the evidence and stories together for an ancient world trading history in the southern side of the world with Saxon Germany. Destruction of physical locations and evidence, looting of artifacts, exterminations of specific groups and biased viewpoints can really twist history. A theory can be true and fit the physical evidence or it can be false, thus scientific methods of dating, dna bone testing, cultural matching, and historical stories have to be accurate to determine the right answers.

Another problem with writing and investigating the truths and lies in history is racism and prejudice. There are at least two types of attitudes or peoples: one is fair, open-minded and cooperative and thus trading and immigration happens with this type; the other is prejudiced, power-mad and competitive and thus raiding and invasion, even extermination of people and destruction of property happens instead. In Asia, civil wars have split countries such as: Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Philippines over foreign policies and which international countries to side with based on religion and politics. This affects trading, importing and exporting, economy, immigration, and world wars. The United Nations and other international organizations like UNESCO, try to have standard human rights and responsibilities and fairness and equality in dealing with other races and cultures for Governments to follow. As mature individual citizens, we all have to learn how to socialize and deal with other foreigners in our lives to keep world peace and avoid wars.

Ships & Trading Routes

The ancient ship analyzed for this project has two pointed tips at the end and red and white stripe square sail. The oldest ships excavated intact in museums are first the Egyptian and later on Viking ship, although both do not have such sails displayed. Probably the Vikings were contracted by Pharaonic Egypt and Babylon Iraq to do the shipping and
importing and exporting of people and products, using the Egyptian ship during the southern expeditions. They later made their own ships which they used for colonizing and immigrating.

The known Viking ship has a square red and white striped cloth sail in the center of the ship with paddle oars on both sides, made of wood, a dragon head at front and tail at the end. The Egyptian wood ship is similar in design with both front and end pointing upwards, square sail in the center, paddle oars on both sides. The Philippine boat the Vinta also has a square striped cloth sail in the center but its ends do not point upwards. Korea has several turtle ships with a dragon head at front and sheltered with a roof which maybe should be carbon dated (please read theory under Widukind, King Duke of Saxons). Some of the cave drawings and ancient kingdoms murals have ships with dragon or animal heads and tails and the people on board may be the Egyptians and Babylonians themselves if their heads are without two horns. Routes for trading were usually probably close to coastal lands for ease of stopping to trade with neighbouring countries but vast oceans and seas crossings would need stronger and bigger ships to carry cargo and food stocks for the longer trips. A sail for wind and paddles for rowing when without wind made this physically possible to go to and from for importing and exporting products and people. A modern navigator Thor Heyerdahl proved it is possible with even a simple reed boat Ra II to cross the Atlantic Ocean in fifty seven 57 days and the Pacific Ocean on a balsa wood boat Kontiki in one hundred one 101 days!

Current modern day trading, importing and exporting of products, between Germany and foreign country partners continues today. Based on some prehistoric cave petroglyphs and paintings plus other artifacts, some of the southern countries with ancient shipping done through Saxon Vikings using Egyptian and Babylonian ships, are also still current trading partners. Germany is usually the strongest Principal trading partner in the European Union for these countries: Philippines EUR 4.08 billion 2013, Egypt EUR 4 billion, Mexico USD 17.2 billion, South Korea Republic 2013 USD 27.2 billion! But unfortunately due to problems with invading ISIS ISIL terrorists, Iraq formerly Babylon Mesopotamia, trade with Germany is now mainly for weapons arms for defence.

Cultural Matching: striped red and white square sail on ships found in ancient ships of Egypt, Mesopotamia Iraq, Phoenician Lebanon, Roman Italy and of course Viking probably Denmark, Norway and Germany

Itefseneb of Elephantine Island Port, Egyptian and Babylonian Trade

In February 2013, the Manchester Museum noticed that one of the little Egyptian statues Neb-Senu was rotating slowly through the day. According to their investigations using a video camera, he rotates during the day as people come and go, and stops at night . Their speculations of theories to explain this occult phenomena include the possibility that his soul
possesses the statue and people's movements cause his statue to move in this anti-clockwise rotation. Online videos and photos show that he is wearing a Viking Celtic outfit with a belt and circle buckle, made in 1800 B.C. The Elephantine Island in Egypt was used as a military and trading border port for ships passing through the Nile River, transferring both people and products. There are legal and administrative documents written in ancient languages such as Hieratic, Demotic, Aramaic, Greek, Latin and Coptic in papyri that have been translated into English and published as The Elephantine Papyri in English: Three Millennia of Cross Cultural Continuity and Change. His position title 'Hry N Tm' was similar to today's Customs Official who has to record the transfers of both people and products. His black statue has his title and offering inscribed with bread, beer, beef and fowl. There are murals of Babylonia probably during King Hammurabi's reign 1792 � 1750 B.C. showing men with two horn helmets, perhaps Vikings riding a boat with ends pointed upwards. But other murals are ancient ships without two horned men probably meaning that the Egyptians and Babylonians also did their own shipping and trading. Perhaps the Saxon Vikings started working at the Elephantine port contracted by ancient kingdoms of Egypt and Iraq to transport goods to and from Africa to Americas and Asia using the ships of Egypt, then later making their own ships for their own trading? If so, trading of products, people and ideas using the Saxon Vikings explains why there are pyramids in Egypt, Central America and Indonesia, and cave petroglyphs and paintings of their adventures.

Colonies & Immigration

The Vikings known recorded history of their water explorations is mainly acknowledged by the Northern countries via their archaelogical investigations of sites and their evidence of remaining ships, plus written in poetic eddas. The Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden, plus Germany are known as the Viking countries.
The Saxons in particular, moved from Germany to England and based on acknowledged abandoned and occupied sites and recorded history, their stone and thatch houses were built in: United Kingdom, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, France, Spain, Portugal, Russia. However, there are enough signs of their possible explorations down to Southern countries from the unacknowledged abandoned and occupied sites, boat remains, cave drawings and petroglyphs, etc. that future archaelogical investigations should be done to authenticate these as well.

Theory of Viking Immigration into Asia
For this project, specifically targeting these countries: South Korea, Taiwan and Philippines and based on evidence, the speculative theory that the King Duke of Saxon Germany, Widukind Westfalen is one of the unknown Silla Kings in South Korea. He escaped after imprisonment in a Frank monastery via his wife Geva of Denmark Kingdom with their son Wichbert, and tomb 155 opened in 1973 with 11,500 artifacts are the possible collection of the Saxons and other Vikings dating as far back as their trading stage through Itefseneb or Neb-Senu, a Saxon Celt who worked in the Elephantine Port of Egypt back in 1800 B.C. and whose mini-statue is currently moving inside the British Metropolitan Museum. There are also several dragon turtle boats which were probably used for transporting the royal family klan and a spiked boat coffin which maybe contains King Duke Widukind himself and not a Korean King, although subsequent royals and others in that area could be EuraAsian mixed blood German Korean! (Please read more under Widukind below. ) Philippines also has signs of colonizing with stone thatch houses, boat shape stone burials and holey stones, stripe sail boats and did trading with two horn helmet Vikings thousands of years before as seen on cave petroglyhs in Angono. Ditto Taiwan another tiny island possibly has signs of settlement from their stone thatch underground houses and pointy tip canoes.

Cultural Matching
South Korea: Sleipnir eight-legged horse of Odin and white horse of Widukind to Heavenly Horse saddle; wings on Widukind's helmet and wings on crown of unknown Silla king; Tillya Tepe Scythian Empire gold tiara and Silla Dynasty gold tiara; also Dol Hareubang grandfather statues and Benedictine monks with shaved head and circle of hairstyle and hands on belly
Philippines: hole stone in Batanes and Ireland, hedge grass on hills in Batanes and Eresburg Marsburg Saxon Germany, boat shape stone burial in Batanes and Denmark
Ragnarok: in Scandinavia and Germany it means the apocalyptic battle and end of the world whereas in Asia it is popular as an animation kids game with forty million players online

Breton Stone and Thatch Houses

Breton traditional houses are made of natural stone rocks for walls with thatch roofs. There are abandoned sites of their colonies in Iberia Spain, Saint Hilda United Kingdom, Greenland, Newfoundland and Songsong Batanes Philippines. There are occupied
sites in Batanes Philippines, and Suncheon and Jeju South Korea but we think this development as part of our own ancestors. Stone thatch houses continue to be made in both Britain, Scotland and Ireland and Brittany France. A few bloggers and photographers think it may be Celtic Viking and some remaining locals remember having ancestors coming from the seas. Possibly, the Saxon Vikings from Germany who moved to England, Ireland and Scotland are the group that together visited the southern side of the world because these stone thatch houses are common in the United Kingdom and France but not in Germany nor in Scandinavia because they were probably destroyed in the Saxon Wars, but the Vikings probably manned the ships for both the trading and later colonizing phases. If foreigners built and settled and mated with the locals then consider it immigration, but if there were battles and destruction, an invasion. The labour was probably collaborated on between the foreigners and locals. If you Google search keywords such as stone thatch house plus a country, there are many photos posted online and clicking on each will tell you where, and quite possibly, this coincidence is simply because these two natural materials stone and grass are common worldwide such as in Central Americas and Africa, and in Scotland the stone thatch are called black house s! Sometimes ideas are transferred by travelers who become worldly from their traveling and the exchange of ideas is included along with the trading of products. Actual contact with Vikings can be determined if there are other evidence signs such as: cave drawings and petroglyphs of two horned men, boat shaped stone burials and tumulus mounds, similar weapons and holey stones.

Cultural matching: natural shape stone walls and thatched grass roofs, either square and rectangular or circular in shape

Boat Shape Stone Burials and Royal Tumuli Mounds

Viking burials are shaped like boats with stones outlining the shape on the ground. Some archaelogical digs have uncovered actual ships and boats buried inside with the dead. Royal mounds have rooms containing the royals with their treasures. In South Korea,
royal tumulus mound 155 contained 11,500 treasures which have similarities to those in Europe: gold crowns in the style of the Scythian Empire in Afghanistan which was conquered by the German Goths; Celtic loops in the heavenly horse saddle possibly relating to the myth of King Widukind being baptised Christian and riding a white horse and Wotan's Sleipner, a horse with eight legs in the Wild Ride; a gold sword with embedded enamel similar to Germanic and Anglo-Saxon jewellery found in Sutton Hoo. Most of these distinctive ship shape burials are in Scandinavian and United Kingdom. There are some in Batanes Philippines. There have also been boats dug up in Butuan dating back to 320 to 1250 A.D. called balangay boats but perhaps may also be Viking, if other evidence proves their presence in other parts of the Philippines.

Cultural matching: stones form an oval shape with pointed ends similar to a boat with pointed ends and may contain a boat with the body; and a small hill tomb is for royalty contains a room with the body and jewelry, etc.

Cave Petroglyphs & Paintings

Cave petroglyphs carved into stone and cave drawings painted onto stone are discovered everywhere in the world. Most people assume these are prehistoric, that is before known written history. Some of these have stories involving incidents of: hunting, trading,
cultural customs, and even traveling visitors like Vikings! The easiest distinctive markings are two horns on the head of a human figure, either long or short horned, similar to the Viking hunting and trading helmets and red striped sail on a ship. There are cave petroglyphs and drawings with these two horned men in various countries: Philippines, Mexico, USA, Libya, South Africa, etc. Just do a Google search on cave drawings and petroglyphs and many photos of these images show up. There are even murals in Egypt showing possible imported products from other countries, which may have been shipped via the Vikings! These cave art historians record the two horn Vikings various hunting and trading activities with the locals of these countries. If these cave drawings and petroglyphs are authentic and drawn thousands of years ago by either or both the locals and the Viking visitors, then the first European world navigators and traders may have been the Vikings! This is not including the Middle Eastern, the Southeast Asians and Polynesians own nearby traveling and trading.

In figuring out whether the locals or the visitor Vikings drew the petroglyph or painting, most assume the locals of that area did them. But for certain symbols such as the spiral circles found in the Cochon Druid Stone in Scotland and also around the world with two horn figures, these may indicate that the Celtic Saxon Vikings drew them as certain spots where lessons worth remembering are marked with a petroglyph accompanied with a spiral circle and two horned men.

Cultural matching: look for two horns on heads of figures similar to Viking hunting and trading helmets, and red stripe square sail on a ship; also spiral circles=milky way galaxy / memorable

Widukind, Saxons and Anglo Saxons and Wars

The Saxon tribe of Germany specifically seems to be the tribe that colonized in Asia and other areas, based on psychic and online tracing of the similarity of town names: Songsong in Batanes Islands Philippines, Suncheon in South Korea, and Saksun in Faroese Islands. But the style of occupied housing with stone walls and thatch grass roofs is rarely found in
Germany where the Saxons originate, but more in Celtic and Breton United Kingdom and Brittany France! There are abandoned settlements of Saxon Vikings in Iberia Spain and Portugal and St Kilda United Kingdom. Maybe during the Saxon Wars with Saxons versus Franks, some of the housing in Germany were destroyed along with the Eresburg Fort Hill and Irminsul by Charlemagne in his conversion of Widukind, Royal House of Odon and the Saxons to Christianity? Charlemagne's army massacred 4500 Saxon tribal leaders in Verden then transferred some Saxons out replacing them with Franks. A possible theory for explaining the settlements in Asia is that Widukind, King of Saxons and Geva, his wife from Denmark kingdom escaped after Charlemagne forced him to convert, then imprisoned him in a Frank monastery, possibly Brantome commune with an abbey founded by Charlemagne in 769 but destroyed by Vikings in 848 and 857. From this point on, some royal blood lines in Europe have been replaced by Charlemagne's choice from 800 A.D. onwards. Widukind's known to mb in Germany was opened and the bones were found to be those of a woman plus the date on the tomb was a much later date than his death. This escape may be why there are forts in South Korea and Batanes Island, and Cheju Island a French Catholic monastery, an unknown king of Silla Dynasty in tomb 155 with 11,000+ artifacts with gold crowns similar to Scythian Empire gold crowns in Afghanistan, horse saddle with Celtic loops and Sleipnir the eight-legged horse of Odin, several royal mound tombs, Vinta boats with similar stripes and armour and weapons in Mindanao, and boat shaped stone burials and holey stones of Odin in Batanes! So much material evidence seem to point towards unknown European foreign influences in these Asian areas although some of us claim these as entirely our own ancestors.

Why has all this information, despite being publicly available separately online, not been put together and published with the Saxon Viking Germans being probably the first European tradings partners of Africa, America and Asia? Mainly because our main trading and shipping connection the Saxons were defeated by the Franks over thirty two years from 772 to 804 A.D. So their history affects the world trading history we did within the southern side of the world. Any records they might have kept, even their castle fort in Eresburg were destroyed along with their tribal leaders. In United Kingdom, many Anglo Saxon churches, monasteries, abbeys, forts and castles remain in ruins! If however, Widukind and his family and some royals did escape to Asia, South Korea and Batanes, based on evidence of a collection of treasures accumulated from thousands of years of trading (and maybe raiding?), all the other prehistorical evidence of Asian, African and American cave historians petroglyphs and paintings, and Egyptian and Babylonian murals would support this theory. Note that the current royal family in United Kingdom under Queen Elizabeth II, also Queen of Commonwealth countries, family name was originally Saxe Coburg Gotha but changed to Windsor in World War I. Thus their royal family line is a mix of both German and British, despite the wars which ruined the Anglo Saxon Christian churches and castles in United Kingdom and the World War II bombings in both countries.

Cultural matching: numerous Anglo Saxon(?) Christian ruins in United Kingdom

Holey Stones & Megaliths

The Eye of Odin also known as Woden/Wodan/Wotan, a God of Asgard, and Valhalla, a hall in the after-life for warriors to meet gods, is based on a Germanic Scandinavian myth that he lost one eye in exchange of wisdom. In various countries, probably visited by early Saxon Vikings, there are stones with a hole which allows at certain times the sunlight
to peek through at sunrise and sunset. Existing samples can be Google searched online using keywords hole stone plus a country. There is a Germanic pagan altar Externsteine which is a natural rock formation where at the top exists a carved altar with a kneeling pillar and a hole like an early Christian altar for the blessed sacrament host chalice. Other holey stones are monuments planted to the ground for outdoor viewing of the sun as it passes center of the hole, in Ireland, United Kingdom, Caucasus Russia, Turkey and Armenia. Even in Batanes Philippines, these stone or rocks with holes similar to those in Ireland as standing stones, are along a trail.

As for stone megaliths, the British Bretons have them in Carnac Brittany France about six thousand years old and Stonehenge Salisbury Great Britain about four thousand six hundred years old, and the Germans have megalith dolmen tombs in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Germany about five thousand five hundred years old. The Bretons have the best stone thatch cottages in the world. Thus probably the combined efforts of the Breton and Celtic for building stone cottages and forts and the Saxon Vikings for the shipping led to overseas colonies both abandoned and occupied. The numerous Anglo Saxon Christian ruins in United Kingdom are puzzling to an outsider, considering that both the Bretons from France and Saxons from Germany were probably both immigrants and may have practised the same Druidic paganism religion outdoors with the Celtic Irish.

Cultural matching: stones with one hole, short as standing stones; tall stones with one hole as monuments or altars; its meaning relates to one eye of Odin and / or the sun or God shining lightrays through; megalith stones outdoors arranged in circles or lines; dolmens are stones arranged in a box type with one hole

Religion & Science

The following are reasons for Germanic Christianity: the real blood father of Jesus, is probably German from the Sidones tribe near Berlin based on an old Ptolemaic map of Germania, Abdes Pantera, whose tomb stone as a Roman soldier was found in Germany and mentioned in the Talmud with (Jesus) Yeshua ben Pandera; the Sidone Shroud of Turin,
the linen cloth which wrapped Jesus body after crucifixion; and the pagan Christian altar of Externsteine which looks like the first chalice host sacrament with the sun shining its rays and site of the Teutoberg Forest, Kalkriese Hill battle against the Romans in 9 C.E. Also Otto I the Great born in Saxony Anhalt became the first German Holy Roman Emperor from 962 to 973 C.E. and started the Ottonian Dynasty 919�1024 C.E. of Saxon German Holy Roman Emperors. Although after Emperor Charlemagne's defeat of King Duke Widukind in 785 C.E., the bloodlines of Saxon Germany royalty and other European royalty may have been replaced. In 1455 C.E., Gutenberg produced what is considered to be the first book ever printed: a Latin language Bible, printed in Mainz, Germany.

Viking Mythology
In Viking mythology, the world was created divided into nine worlds between Niflheim the ice cold and dark north, and Muspelheim the hot firey lava south with Ginnungagap in between. Valhalla is the hall in the afterlife for dead Vikings which is watched over by Odin. The Yggdrasil is the tree of life and the Irminsul is the pillar in nature for fertility and marriage ceremonies.

Paganism vs Christianity
Note the general difference between paganism worship of God in nature outdoors including living trees and animals and non-living stones arranged in line with sun, moon and stars versus ancestral worship of God indoors through people, the prophets and founders such as Jesus and Apostles, inside churches and monasteries.

Cultural and Language Matching: Valhalla to Bathala and bahala in the Philippines, Kriesian to Christian, numerous Anglo Saxon Christian ruins in United Kingdom

Science or Religion? Crop Circle Designs
The spiral and concentric circles symbol is seen in stone petroglyphs with two horned Vikings, which probably date back thousands of years ago during their early trading and shipping stage or at their later colonizing stage. Currently there are many amazing and beautiful circular geometrical designs being cut in various crop fields in Europe and Americas and often in Wiltshire United Kingdom near Stonehenge Circle, an ancient sacred site for Druid Celts and early Vikings. The designs are done either by invisible means or lighted small saucers or lasers hidden in the sky. YouTube videos have videos of lights hovering above the wheat fields supposedly drawing the designs. In December 2009 in Norway, a beam of laser light formed a rotating spiral in the sky and was posted in several YouTube videos. Mixing theories of science, technology and religion, or acts of God and advanced alien beings, analysts try to decode these mysterious and magical geometrical symbol designs by mathematical measurements, significant dates and graphical interpretations, sometimes associating them to tragic plane crashes, comets and other disasters. If there will be future contact by psychic telepathy and actual physical meetings between these advanced aliens and humans on Earth, the place to be is at Stonehenge Circle, Wiltshire United Kingdom!

Alien Contact & Ancient Civilizations to Modern G8/G20
Extra-terrestrial alien humanoid beings have visited and collaborated either certain ancient civilizations based on artifact evidence and preserved mummies in: Egypt, Iraq, Mexico, Peru and United Kingdom. There seems to be a link with advanced development for those times and celestial visitors contact. Currently the top countries known as the G8 Group of Eight or G20 Twenty are advanced with mechanical and industrial equipment: airplanes, computers, cars, ships, rockets, satellites, construction equipment, etc. Unfortunately most of the ancient civilizations which had alien advisors and visitors did not continue their leading edge. Today many lights in the skies cruising Earth are considered to be UFOs Unidentified Flying Objects, and people post photos and videos of these sightings, but remain ignorant of who and what they are. Maybe in the near future there will be actual contact by satellite and internet signals and networks via television, radio, computer until an actual physical meeting with these advanced alien beings from the sky? In our quest for God and our existence we develop religions and now sciences and technologies to help us understand our reason for existence. Actual contact with the celestial beings will help us bridge the gap between religion and science and broaden our minds and hearts to achieve universal wisdom necessary for our souls and minds evolution.

Cultural Matching: spirals and concentric circles from ancient stone petroglyphs sometimes near two horned Vikings and a hypnotic telepathic 'lesson'?, and modern circular geometric symbol designs in crop fields of wheat, barley, corn, even snow and sand

Armour, Weapons, Clothing, Food and Drinks

The Vikings unique two horn helmets probably used for hunting, trading and traveling have variety based on type of animal horns attached and can be real horns or metal. They also had helmets without two horns as armour with weapons used for battles, some dating from the Roman Empire when they were captured and turned into soldiers.
At the Royal Ontario Museum exhibition, the argument over horns or none was based on not finding any in the excavations. But maybe the hunting stage prior to cattle and pig raising was in the past? The cave art in various countries showing two horned figures are graphical history dating thousands of years further back. Comparing similarities globally, Korea and Philippines also have armour and weapons such as spears, swords and shields. Batanes has a beige straw vest for rain similar to the Viking furry vest for cold weather. Roasted pig is roasted on a revolving spit over an outdoor fire and is known as lechon in Philippines. Beer was probably invented in Egypt over five thousand years ago and is now produced in several countries.

Cultural and Language Matching: Kalkriese Battle to kalis and keris swords in Mindanao Philippines, beers around the world

Hill Forts and Lighthouse Towers

On small hills or mesas there are forts built with stone and used to protect themselves from invaders. Lighthouse towers are used as light signals at night for those in ships out in the dark and need to know where the home port is.

Cultural Matching: both Korea and Philippines have forts on hills and lighthouse towers like those in Europe and Central Americas

Language and Words

Ancient languages are carved into stones and inked onto papyrus documents. Samples remain in museums and viewable online, although modern usage is no longer for most, having been replaced by other verbal languages and scripts. There are stones and papyrus documents that for shipping and trading. There are also cave documents of
Essene and Christian Gospels found in Qumran and Nag Hammadi, some copies are in the current Bible, but others have been suppressed from print but are now available online. The first mass printed Bible was by Gutenberg in Mainz Germany.

Ticao stone found buried in a small island in Masbate Philippines might possibly have been a stone about trading since Masbate history states that there was probably trading between Chinese, Indians, Mexicans and Spanish. Here's a possible translation from the Baybayin Tao script to modern English: 1. is there no reduction in pawning / 2 sh*t for the community / 3 people embrace not look / 4 are we both / 5 stupid without shame / 6 you are mute (or astonished) god or fate willing / 7 instead without / 8 laugh and thanks / 9 only

Cultural Matching: Valhalla to Bathala and bahala=decide / be responsible